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徽派中式古建筑工程的四大特点是什么?

来源:/news/426.html 发布日期:2021-12-15

1、马头墙
1. Horsehead wall
提到徽派建筑,估计所有人的一反应就是马头墙了。马头墙是徽派建筑中的重要特色,从宏村来看,徽派民居通常十分的密集,山水相连,加上耕田,留给民居的土地就不显的很多了,正所谓“七山一水一分田,一分道路和庄园”,如此拥挤的民居环境,防火自然成了重中之重,加上古代木质结构的房子,一旦着火,没有很好的措施,那么整个村子可能就会毁于一旦,而马头墙的存在正是为了阻隔火源,故马头墙亦有“封火墙”之称。
When it comes to Hui style architecture, it is estimated that everyones reaction is horse head wall. Horse head wall is an important feature of Hui style architecture. From the perspective of Hongcun village, Hui style houses are usually very dense, connected by mountains and rivers. Coupled with farming, the land left for folk houses is not much. It is the so-called "seven mountains, one water, one field, one road and Manor". In such a crowded residential environment, fire prevention naturally becomes the top priority. In addition, once the ancient wooden structure houses catch fire, Without good measures, the whole village may be destroyed. The horse head wall exists to block the fire source. Therefore, the horse head wall is also known as "fire sealing wall".
徽派建筑马头墙马头墙的构造为,随屋面坡度层层迭落,以斜坡长度定为若干档,墙顶挑三线排檐砖,上覆以小青瓦,并在每只垛头顶端安装搏风板(金花板)。

The structure of the horse head wall of Huizhou architecture is that the horse head wall falls layer by layer with the roof slope, and the length of the slope is set as several gears. The top of the wall is covered with three line row eave bricks, covered with small green tiles, and a wind board (Golden Flower board) is installed at the top of each pier.

马头墙墙头都高出于屋顶,轮廓作阶梯状,脊檐长短随着房屋的进深而变化,多檐变化的马头墙在江南民居中广泛地被采用,有一阶、二阶、三阶、四阶之分,也可称为一叠式、两叠式、三叠式、四叠式,通常三阶、四阶更常见,较大的民居,因有前后厅,砖墙墙面以白灰粉刷,墙头覆以青瓦两坡墙檐,白墙青瓦,明朗而雅素。叠落有致的马头墙远观如山岳,使得整个村子与远处的山脉相映成辉,更体现山水相依的徽派建筑风格。
Horsehead walls are high above the roof, and the outline is stepped. The length of ridge and eaves changes with the depth of the house. Horsehead walls with multiple eaves are widely used in Jiangnan folk houses, including first-order, second-order, third-order and fourth-order, which can also be called one stack, two stack, three stack and four stack. Generally, third-order and fourth-order are more common. Large folk houses have front and rear halls, The brick wall is painted with white ash, the wall head is covered with green tiles, and the two slope wall eaves are white walls and green tiles, bright and elegant. The stacked horse head wall looks like a mountain from a distance, which makes the whole village shine with the distant mountains and reflects the Hui architectural style of mountains and rivers.
2、三雕
2. Three carvings
三雕指的是“木雕”“石雕”以及“砖雕”。徽雕在徽派建筑中都有着不同程度的体现,在徽派建筑的梁架上,中间粗大部分,这种梁民间亦称之为“冬瓜梁”,这种梁的中间部分一般会雕上华美的木雕。三雕的存在使得徽派建筑有着立体典雅的感觉,“门罩迷藻悦,照壁变雕墙”便是徽州三雕的实际体现。
Three carvings refer to "wood carvings", "stone carvings" and "brick carvings". Emblem carvings are reflected in Hui style buildings to varying degrees. On the beam frame of Hui style buildings, the middle part is thick. This kind of beam is also called "white gourd beam" by the people. The middle part of this beam is usually carved with gorgeous wood carvings. The existence of the three carvings makes the Huizhou architecture have a three-dimensional and elegant feeling. "The door cover is charming and the screen wall becomes a carved wall" is the actual embodiment of the three carvings in Huizhou.
3、牌坊
3. Archway
牌坊是徽州建筑中很重要的一环,与民居、祠堂并称徽州古建三绝。牌坊的历史很长远,春秋战国时便以诞生,开始作为村落中的门来使用,称为“衡门”。随着时代的演变,又变做标志性建筑使用,有着严格的等级制度。明清时,徽州人文荟萃,居高官者甚多,加之徽商财力雄厚,树立牌坊日益鼎盛。
Memorial archway is a very important part of Huizhou architecture. It is called the three wonders of Huizhou ancient architecture together with folk houses and ancestral halls. The memorial archway has a long history. It was born in the spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period and began to be used as a door in the village, which is called "Hengmen". With the evolution of the times, it has become a landmark building, with a strict hierarchical system. During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, Huizhou had a large number of talents and senior officials. In addition, Huizhou merchants had strong financial resources, and the establishment of memorial archways became increasingly prosperous.
徽州牌坊牌坊一般分为两类,一种是作为桥梁、墓道、祠堂、里坊、衙署门前的标志性建筑,另一种则是旌表坊。用来褒扬功绩,彰表忠烈人物的。
Huizhou memorial archways are generally divided into two types: one is as a landmark building in front of bridges, tombs, ancestral halls, Lifang and government offices, and the other is JingBiao archway. Used to praise achievements and show loyalty.
牌坊又称牌楼,以石制为主,仿木结构。起初只有单排立柱,后来才逐步发展为四柱、六柱,甚至八柱,是一种门洞式的建筑,故有四柱冲天式,八柱式,口字式等造型。听导游讲,徽州的牌楼有四种等级,依次为御赐、恩荣、圣旨、敕建,从内容看牌坊又分为忠、孝、节、义坊。
The archway, also known as the archway, is mainly made of stone and imitation wood structure. At first, there was only a single row of columns, but later it gradually developed into four columns, six columns, or even eight columns. It is a door opening architecture, so there are four columns, eight columns, mouth type and so on. According to the tour guide, there are four levels of archways in Huizhou, including imperial gift, grace, imperial edict and imperial edict. From the content, the archways are divided into loyalty, filial piety, festival and righteousness.
4、祠堂
4. Ancestral temple
祠堂为徽州古建三绝之一,祠堂的地位在古徽州之中是很高的。祠堂脱胎于宗庙,是家族祭祖开会的地方。
Ancestral temple is one of the three wonders of ancient architecture in Huizhou. The status of ancestral temple is very high in ancient Huizhou. Ancestral hall, born from the ancestral temple, is the place where families hold meetings to worship their ancestors.
祠堂的规模上就可以看出一个家族的历史背景、社会经济、家族繁衍及盛衰等各个方面的情况。祠堂一般有两类,一种是宗祠,一种是支祠。一村一般只有一座宗祠,特殊情况下会有两座,三座则是没有的。宗祠一般处于村子中间。
From the scale of the ancestral hall, we can see the historical background, social economy, family reproduction, prosperity and decline of a family. There are generally two types of ancestral halls, one is ancestral hall and the other is branch ancestral hall. Generally, there is only one ancestral temple in a village. Under special circumstances, there will be two and three. The ancestral temple is usually in the middle of the village.
徽州封闭的环境,诞生出了徽商求知进取的精神,徽商的存在也促生了徽州建筑,徽州建筑便因此折射出徽州的环境与徽州人的人文学问。这是一个不可断裂的纽带,这样不断地循化,时间的沉淀之下,让徽州学问灿烂于世。
Huizhous closed environment gave birth to the spirit of seeking knowledge and enterprising of Huizhou merchants, and the existence of Huizhou merchants also promoted Huizhou architecture. Therefore, Huizhou architecture reflects Huizhous environment and Huizhou peoples humanistic culture. This is an unbreakable bond. With the continuous evolution and the precipitation of time, Huizhou culture will be brilliant in the world.
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